The Neurdein firm was founded in 1864 by Etienne Neurdein, son of the photographer Charlet. His brother Antonin soon joined him. This was at first a typical Parisian studio, where people could have their photos taken or buy historical portraits sold as calling cards, but in the 1870s the firm began to target a curious and well-off clientele with its production and sale of tourist views. The number of trips increased, to North Africa, through-out Europe, with the operators bringing back to Paris boxes filled with exotic views which were very popular at the end of the 19th century. The two brothers became nationally famous when they photographed the Paris World Fairs of 1889 and 1900, publishing their photographs in the magazines of the time and in prestigious albums. In addition, the Neurdein firm's editorial activities made it one of the pioneers in the field of publishing photographs : its postcards, published under the brands ND and X were widely distributed. Roger-Viollet purchased this collection of several hundreds of thousands of negatives and photographic albums in 1970 from la Compagnie des Arts Photomécaniques.